The diagram above is a representation of a neuron. Similarly to any cell, it is composed of a few key components, such as the nucleus and the cell body, with the mitochondria and the cytoplasm. The neurons have a few features which are unique to them. Firstly, the axon, is the part of the cell which, alike a cable, will transmit the received message to the following cell using electrical shocks. The axon terminal is the more specific part that emits the signal, while the axon simply "transports" it. The dendrites are used to establish an idea of the environment of the neuron, similarly to what some bug's antennae are used for. The myelin sheath is a substance that covers the axon of certain of the neurons (usually the motor and sensory neurons). Neurons are necessary for feelings. They are the ones who transmits information received by our senses to the brain, which is why they are called sensory neurons, such as the touch. For example, pain felt in the finger will be transmitted into an electrical signal from the hand, through the sensory neurons, and to the brain in a matter of milliseconds. The brain will then itself send a signal through the motor neurons to the finger and the arm, to make it move away from the danger or the source of the pain.
As it is for, most of the body parts and functions of the human body, the nervous system decreases in efficiency with age, alike the eyes or the hearing. In fact, even the brain shows a decline in efficiency, and is one of the reasons to the weakening of the nervous system over time. Now that we know how the nervous system works, we might wonder about how the brain works and how it is composed, as it is the big coordinator of the nervous system?
Published by Baptiste Brossette.
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